Damage evolution in pseudoelastic polycrystalline Co-Ni-Ga high-temperature shape memory alloys
|authors:||M. Vollmer, P. Krooß, C. Segel, A. Weidner, A. Paulsen, J. Frenzel, H. Biermann, G. Eggeler, H.J. Maier, T. Niendorf|
|publication:||J. Alloys Comp., Volume 633, 288-295|
Due to its high transformation temperatures, Co-Ni-Ga represents a very promising high temperature shape memory alloy (HT SMA) for applications at elevated temperatures. Co-Ni-Ga single crystals show a fully reversible pseudoelastic shape change up to temperatures of 400 °C. Unfortunately, polycrystalline Co-Ni-Ga suffers from brittleness and early fracture mainly due to intergranular constraints. In the current study, different thermo-mechanical processing routes produced various microstructures which differ in grain size and texture. A bicrystalline bamboo-like grain structure results in the highest reversible transformation strains and excellent cyclic stability. Moreover, solution-annealed and hot-rolled conditions also showed good cyclic stability. Using in situ high-resolution electron microscopy, the elementary processes, which govern the microstructural evolution during pseudoelastic cycling were investigated and the mechanisms that govern structural and functional degradation were identified. The observations documented in the present work suggest that the formation of the ductile γ-phase on and near grain boundaries as well as the activation of multiple martensite variants at grain boundaries are beneficial for improved cyclic performance of polycrystalline Co-Ni-Ga HT SMAs.